history of the city from the Snake Mountain
ДОБРО ПОЖАЛОВАТЬ, в гости, в загадочный Zmeinogorsk Змеиногорск.РУ - выделение информации по теме: Змеиногорск, Рудный Алтай, Колывань - история, легенды и прочая таинственная составляющая этих мест и т.п...
Dear Visitor, to visit in mysterious Zmeinogorsk. Zmeinogorsk.RU - a selection of pieces of information on the topic: Old / New Zmeinogorsk , Rudny Altai , Kolyvan - history, legends, of other numinous component of these places, etc...
History of the city from the Snake Mountain
City by the Anti Snake Mountain
A few words about this site Zmeinogorsk.RU: Where do you fall? What is this place??
Zmeinogorsk.RU - The most Eurasia Center ( Ore Altai Mountain and Stonecutters Kolyvan' , History and Modernity )
Zmeinogorsk.RU ( Ore Altai Mountain and Stonecutters Kolyvan' , History and Modernity )
History Zmeinogorsk has its roots in the era of Peter I, the irrepressible energy of the legendary emperor was the cause of the city. As a result of the war with Sweden, Russia could no longer acquire the Swedish iron - the best in Europe. The only solution to this situation has been mining its own iron. In 1697 Peter received an order for the exploration of various ores. Began development of the foothills of the Altai.
A.N.Demidov - very cunning, ruthless and resourceful man who aspires to power, was able to capture the open field prospectors on Snake Hill. Akinfiy Demidov has achieved an audience most of Catherine I, the pre- filing a written request . The petition Akinfiy mentions that "by the mines of copper and other ores have hunting " and build factories what " of not only in Sweden but also in the whole of Europe was not found " Demidov was told by Peter I. During the audience , held January 1, 1726 Demidov raised to Empress and James Bruce brought ore samples . Thus Demidov were listed 9 points, which were found copper ore deposits . The fate of the Altai was transferred on February 16 in the hands Demidov . Distance from St. Petersburg Altai and the inability to appeal to the king for help, led to the fact that only the owner knew what was going on in Ore Altai . Denunciations and complaints of high-handedness Akinfiy did not reach his goal - it is securely protected reputation of the fine iron and copper .
Demidov Foreman Fedor Lelesnovym in 1736, gold was discovered and silver in addition to copper ores ZMEEVSKY . Many decades Zmeinogorsky mine remained Russia's richest mine . Mine got its name because of its proximity to the mountain and kites p . Zmeevka because first and the settlement was called Kites . In 1804, when the mine was silver- based plant , also called ZMEEVSKY . In the XVIII century. instead of these names there are other - Zmeinogorsk , Zmeinogorsky Zmeinogorsky mine and plant . Title Zmeinogorsk definitively established only in the late XIX century.
Name Zmeeva mountain due to vodivshimisya on it in abundance snakes. In the XVIII century Zmeinogorsk was one of the major silver and gold mines of the Altai. On Zmeinogorsk mine was built Polzunov Derivative installation, which was the first in Siberia and in force until 1765 Frolov Zmeinogorsky mechanized mine ( 1763 - 1797 ). . Residents Zmeinogorsk still have the opportunity to enjoy the pond, which was caused by a dam built on the project Frolov . The dam affects the size of 60 fathoms in length from 10 to 45 fathoms in width, and the height is 11 fathoms . P. Frolov designed cast-iron rail road, which was built in 1806 and was the first in Russia (!) Overground rail railroad ( " P.K.Frolov in a report to the Office of the Mills 14 November 1810 indicated that the main technical parameters they built the iron road, taken from " Annals of arts and crafts ," published in French. During the 18th edition of this volume describes the iron road, built by engineer B. Wyatt Lord Penrhyn quarry in England. However, the road PK Frolov is not, as noted by N.Savelev , a copy of Wyatt road . It featured a more economical and efficient profile rails, mounting method , the presence of artificial structures - the viaduct , bridge , embankment. not only was it one of the world's rail roads, but also the world's first elevated railway with the world's first w / d bridge " ) . It connected Zmeinogorsky - silver mine and the smelting plant. From 1809 to 1917 it was transported by ore not less than 2,739,106 pounds . Zmeinogorsk worked on mine and convicts , with the most guilty were sent to the mine under the ground , pre- chained for all eternity. The mine was equipped with sophisticated drifts , galleries , liftlokami , kurshtadtami (closed cell ) , water wheels. Nowadays it is almost destroyed , as in the Soviet era mining ore was open way , that is with explosives . As a result, on the site of the dragons mountains formed a huge pit depth of 60 meters. Moreover, this valley has always had a dry bottom, because Frolov drainage continues to operate to this day. But all the galleries, alas, were bombarded , and enthusiasts who dream of a museum in a former mine , dig them up to now. During the undivided control Demidovs mine head grade was 200 , at 1 ton ( considered to be cost-effective production , if one has a ton of gold in '12 ) , now an average of '17 per tonne. In the long tunnels , one of the upper layers of the mine where it is cold and damp, hard convicts . Did not allow them to go out into the world, they live under the ground and died . Such brutal conditions led to the fact that people were dying before the age of 32 years. The authorities decided to " have mercy " - as a result of the underground church was built , where commit "requires" priest "from above" - from a village church. Standard - 17 cm of rock per day. Convict who failed to make the norm has modified in the dark with candles , leading to blindness. Convicts were buried in the mine dumps . The mine employs 40 Pugachev , got there after the suppression of the rebellion .
Humboldt was impressed by the beauty of the Altai, especially lake near Kolyvan' . Zmiyov mountain - a rich source of a variety of stones, rocks and ores of silver, gold , barite , lapis lazuli , copper pyrite , and many others . By the way, the snakes , the abundance of which the town derives its name , was ordered to kill and bring to the area once a week - where they were burned . The most assiduous give reward to those who did not bring - a whip . Position gornozavodskih workers who are not convicts , it was also very heavy. I had to work 12 hours a day. Work went on throughout the year. With the mines annually escapes from 50 to 80 people , someone came back himself , and someone caught , punishing , chased through the system.
Found Russian new ore district , which is now called the Ore Altai , was actually opened for many centuries before them. Russian rudoiskateli it only rediscovered . According to the preserved old tracks are easy to find ore deposits , and ancient design have served them the surest sign of the search . Legends of the riches of Ore Altai were known even in the " Ancient Greece. Father of History Herodotus wrote about Arimaspi and " vultures guarding the gold . "According to well-known scientists Alexander von Humboldt , P. and S. Rudenko Chikhacheva under Arimaspi and vultures (flu ) Herodotus population meant ore Altai . Moreover, Humboldt and Chikhachev believed that it was the Altai and Ural deposits of gold ores were the main source of supply of gold European Scythians and the ancient Greek colonies . " In the Altai Mountains in the I millennium BC there was a rich and vibrant culture, which was discovered during excavations of burial mounds with large riprap . But the Altai, no archaeological sites within the III century BC, which would be adjoined to the previous culture , which indicates that it is destroyed at some short time. As suggested by SI Rudenko, it could be the result of an epidemic or other catastrophic disasters such as the mass deaths of livestock from starvation , accompanied by loss of population from starvation. Could it be connected with an enemy invasion. It seems that along with the death of a rich and ancient culture of the Altai Mountains are killed and Mining Ore Altai . The miners left their development , not because of ore faces were drawn , stop them for something else . ...
Zmeinogorsk occupied an important place in the Russian mining industry until the middle of the XIX century. Almost half of all the silver mined in the Altai region , accounted for its mines . More than 100 years Zmeevsky mine was the main supplier of silver in Russia . It produces up to 5 - 8 million pounds and the penetrating up to 3 million pounds of silver ore , yielding up to 1,000 pounds of silver annually . Zmeinogorsk made ??of gold sarcophagus of Alexander Nevsky, who is now in the State Hermitage Museum in St. Petersburg and many other things made ??of gold, silver , stone, encouraging visitors to museums not only in Russia but also in other countries! (Here's what I wrote about Zmeinogorsk Chikhachev PA in 1842 : " Zmeinogorsk built up bigger and better than Barnaul, which strictly speaking is only the city, but in fact is the most common village ..."). At the end of the XIX century. mines began to run , and in 1893 silver- closed plant . Zmeinogorsk became a trading settlement with small-scale industry . But after 1917, Zmeinogorsk and the surrounding area have found new deposits of polymetallic ores. As a result, Zmeinogorsk the workers' village , and in 1952 became the city Zmeinogorsk .
Such a grandiose and mechanized enterprise as Zmeinogorsky hydropower plant has no analogues in the world . Not only the scale but also the type of hydraulic structures was unique throughout the XVIII- XIX centuries . Zmeinogorsk attractions are well-preserved objects . You can find a drainage channel from the dam to Catherine mine Krestitelnoy galleries, in a water-filled subterranean depths wheel - the only facility of its kind , unparalleled in the world ( the world's largest (diameter 18 m) .) In the city there were such prominent figures as Alexander Kulibin , Polzunov , A. Brehm , N.Pallas , G. Miller , P. Shangin , J. Hermann , A. Poroshin , P. Frolov, Frolov , Semenov Tien Shan , P. Anosov, Mr. Spassky , F. Dostoevsky , Sapozhnikov , W. Radloff . In the development of the mine involved Zmeinogorsk German scientists : IG Leibe , A. Beer , A. Humboldt , GS Pitching . According to their tech. level , the degree of mechanization of mining and processing operations Zmeinogorsk during the second half of the 18th century was one of the leading Russian mining companies ! Mining Museum Zmeinogorsk - this is the first in Western Siberia building constructed ( PK Frolov) especially (!) For the museum .
In Kolyvan, on the White River , was built by stone-cutting factory grinder . But the treatment of stones for the court began to engage in even earlier, in 1786 , in Loktevke . The rulers of Europe's richest countries competed in the splendor of the decoration of their palaces . In 1786, in search of colored semi-precious stones has been sent to an expert Peter Shangin . They were open and the main deposits of jasper and porphyry remarkable . On Kolyvan factory were produced hundreds of articles , dozens of huge vases, candelabras , columns , floor lamps , and various other decorations. For example , a gorgeous vase Kolyvan stone-cutters , which the Emperor Alexander I presented to Napoleon in honor of the conclusion of the Peace of Tilsit short ... Many products have no equal in the world , because only in ancient times in Greece and Rome do like amphorae and vases, but, as a rule, made ??of gypsum or soft marble and a much smaller size . Russian tsars wanted to impress the world the splendor of his court . It made ??the world's largest vase from a single block of jasper weighing more than 11 tons ( " Queen of Vases " installed now in the Hermitage) . The initial weight of the same monolith was 20 tons. The large size of its elliptical bowl reaches five meters. At its production took 12 years, and for the delivery of stone blocks from the field to the factory used the power of hundreds of workers as a horse for this purpose were not good . Moved the portage, a day not more than 500 m , and in fact had to drag her many tens of kilometers. Economic secret of this production was simple. Products that do not have a price, the royal treasury treated exactly cheap , as it was used essentially slave labor of bonded , ie serfs. Civilized Europe could not afford it ! Kolyvan' - is not only the ancestral home of Ore Altai , it is also a link with the great art of stone-cutters , stone carving art of the symphony , which performed the Russian masters of the XIX century in the depths of the Siberian mountains , the sounds of which are still not subside in the museum's halls of Moscow and St. Petersburg, at the World shows !
For Zmeinogorsky area is nicknamed "Altai Switzerland ." And that definition is far from the truth. Beautiful lakes , ancient rocks attract many tourists. People who have visited here often return again to enjoy the fresh air , smell the mountain herbs , listen voiced lilt of mountain streams , touching eternity in ancient rocks. Local rivers are attractive not only for its beauty but also an opportunity for old time's sake , if you're lucky , pan for gold dust ...
Автор: Горшечников Ю.В. (подготовлено на основе материалов сайта: http://zmeinogorsk.ru) Слайды!
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