Змеиногорск (Рудный Алтай)
"Исход. Секретнокаторжные горы Змеиной." Художник Иван Мамонтов.(Алтайская Организация Союза Художников России)
(С) Иван Мамонтов
Стоит Змеиногорск в распадке рудных гор,
Легенда старины в названии таится.
На утренней заре по дымке бросишь взор
И кажется: по склонам старых гор
Туман истории дымится и клубится.
Вот камень у пруда, вот штольни старой вход,
Вот барельеф из скал, нависших над карьером.
Привидится в момент столетий мерный ход –
Из зева старой шахты выйдет вот,
Тот самый рудознатец Федор, знатный делом.
Седая голова с отливом серебра,
А искорки из глаз, как золота частицы.
Натруженной рукой, стирая пот со лба.
Он спросит вдруг: - «Ну, как, насчет добра,
Что здесь нашел я, славно потрудившись?»
Пусть все не наяву, но в том и весь секрет,
И время говорить, конечно, не в новинку,
История велит – оставленный нам след
Хранить, принять же это, как завет
И поклониться рудознатцу, как в старинку.
Не мало лет рассвет менял закат,
за четверть века вот уже перевалило
И с дня с того, когда в горе открылся клад,
Ведь время не крутилось же назад,
Казалось бы, гора все чрево раздарила.
Но время разное творит и разный сказ –
Достались цепи от колодников музеям,
А новые копры над шахтами сейчас
Нам говорят, что не иссяк запас,
Живет Змеиногорск, легендами овеян.
(С) Борис Есипов
Legend of the Big Snake ...
The second month was
Yermil south towards the blue mountains that rose above the horizon. Where - and there, as telling the elderly, is a mountain that holds the wealth of the Great Serpent, protected by innumerable hordes of his fellow men. All on the road happened: it took nearly elk horns - came on his trail. Where - roared out there in front of the bear - had to turn sharply to the side. The long leg of the knife - not a weapon against him. Passing the river, stumbled Yermil and soaked to the skin. Would not it be schstya, but in disguise. When getting out of the river, a pebble in the water flashed and went out. Spread out to dry clothes duck water rushed. Bent downward, and it is necessary - see. Fed up with him and gasped - a speck of native gold. A little farther he saw the second, third. In order not to scare the bird - good luck, put the search tomorrow: the case - that the evening went on. Fireplace spread, and small percussion fare, went to bed. Suddenly I heard whose - that whispers: "Do not sleep, Yermil Ave wealth." Yermil lifted his head and froze with fear. Curled, before him lay a great serpent. Paralyzed his eyes, he was unable to move hand or foot. Woke up when the sun had risen. Did not understand: whether he dreamed of meeting, whether it was a reality. But the words lodged in her head. Ahead loomed the mountain. Is not that hides a treasure? And she seemed to tease. It seems to fit her foot and she had a mountain of other lies. Tired of the daily search, lay down and fell asleep. And scurried dreamed - dreamed big snake.
Do not hurry - he hissed. - Gore does not like the greedy so Toropka. The time will come, and it will open you the secret.
! - I wanted to cry but stopped short Yermil, recalling mandate snake is not in a hurry. In the morning he again went in search of gold. Any ore came across as votzolotaya not. And such a rage he picked up.
Well, wait, Snake! Uzho he will show me the way to the mystery!
Before we meet the third night, pitched Yermil brushwood around it - the grass in the middle of the fire spread. Pretended to be asleep. And all - the arrival of the Snake is overlooked. Woke up on the hissing sound. Coals glowed in the darkness about his eyes.
vain rushing me ... but if in a hurry before the touch of wealth, then ...
I could not resist
Yermil and threw firebrands in a circle. Grass fire broke out around. And when the snake was ready to soar over the fire, shouted Yermil pleadingly: - Wait, wait!
Vilos snake's body among the stones. Yermil hurried after him, stumbling and padaya.i votpered it rose a mountain, around which swarmed with numerous snakes.
Do not worry - Big Snake hissed. - While I'm with you, will not touch you.
- that of a mountain river roared dully. That - whether warning of what - what it is enticing. Suddenly, the mountain appeared a dark doorway.
Go ahead! - Big Snake hissed.
Yermil stepped forward and his legs went into the void. The flight seemed like an eternity, but lasted a few seconds. Falling on that - it is soft, Yermil opened his eyes. Before him, shimmering iridescent colors shone cave. And in the middle of her lay piles of gold.
Where am I? - exclaimed stunned Yermil.
This is my wealth. - Big Snake said. Will be yours if you become his guardian.
Yermil involuntarily reached for the gold. A bright piece of metal burns his hand. From the unbearable pain and clenched fingers ... Yermil awoke he was lying at the foot of the mountain. The sun was shining. And instead of the sun Ermilov videla mountain of gold. Yermil rose, stretched himself, and fell from the open palm of gold bullion.
So, not a fad to me! - Burned a thought. Not a dream. So this hidden treasure. Home Yermil flew as on wings. However, the villagers, after hearing his story, laughed, saying that thought is the same. But suddenly, the men began to disappear from the village. We returned tired, angry - not found the mountain. Yermil remembering mandate snake, do not hurry to the mountain. Believed that the time will tell him when Snake Mountain will open its door to the mystery.
After many years of grief in the wake of his descendants came Yermilov. Shoveled the whole mountain, and stayed on her quarry, survived to this day. A wealth? Well, it turned into the ore from which the miners have learned a lot of silver, tin, copper and zinc.
"Once again, Snake Mountain ..."
from 1747 to 1843, from Snake Mountain produced 103,785,159 tons of sorted ore. Of these, 73,420 pounds of silver obtained, containing about 2,200 pounds of gold. The average silver content in ores from 1756 to 1766, did not exceed 8.5 spool down to 5 spools in pood, from 1766 to 1776 - amounted to 5.5 spool, spool down to 4, from 1776 to 1794 - reached 3 spools, dropping to 1.25 spool on the sample in 1842 pood of ore was only half the spool of silver.
ore mining and smelting of silver ever increasing, reaching a maximum by 1775 the silver content was reduced with increasing depth, and the mines became deeper, the harder it was to deal with groundwater. In 1748 for the exploration of ores were laid two galleries - Meadow and the Contractor, who since 1750, after the end of their penetration, began to act as the ebb. But by 1752 the lower horizons of the workings were already much lower than those tunnels. Therefore, in 1753 began laying special vodoot tunnel, which ended in 1758. This tunnel is called Krestitelnoy. The unit provided its pumping of water from all walks of Zmeinogorsk mine lying above it. There was no time to develop the water flooded the galleries above Krestitelnoy Even today, when on-site excavation formed a deep pit, and she blocked tunnel in some places, yet it does its function of pumping water. All the production are without water, in spite of the rain, snowmelt and groundwater. As before (more than 230 years ago), the water is discharged into the tunnel Krestitelnoy River Cleistogenes squarrosa.
Krestitelnaya gallery - outstanding technical construction of the 18th century. It is a oval, somewhat compressed laterally tunnel, surrounded by a stone almost throughout. The average slope of 3 m adit at 1 kilometer. Exit from the Baptist-tunnel is 200 meters from the river Cleistogenes squarrosa.
In 1781 K. Frolov was appointed manager of Snake-Gorsky mine and proceeded to install the hydraulic engineering systems. This system represents a large number of technical facilities for pumping water, raising the ore, and other operations. "To drive the ore-vodovylivatelnyh and also in mining and other necessary production machinery is arranged by the river dam Cleistogenes squarrosa".
The dam raised the water
to the desired level and set up large amounts of water in the form of an extensive pond. The dam was built in 1786. Its length is 128 meters wide at the base - 96 feet, the width of the upper base - o 21 m, the height of the dam - 23.5 meters. The dam is well preserved to this day. It blocks a deep and wide log, in which flowed the River. Cleistogenes squarrosa, adjacent to the rocky hills, rising above the crest of the dam at the spillway is located 4.5 m away from the dam for the stone hill, adjacent to the left end of it. The width of the spillway-dam 5 m Zmeinogorsk is one of the most remarkable 18th century waterworks.
creating waterworks, K. Frolov faced the huge room with granite carved to set the wheels of large sump. At the same time began to use stone lining, stone stairs to descend to the slaughter. Thus, the entrance to the mine resembles Ekaterina lined the entrance to the cave. The length of this "grotto" 12 m, width of -5 m from the "Grotto" downward drift walked two. Such fastening rough excavation was first applied to the Snake K. Frolov, nogorskom mine. Currently, access to the mine is practically impossible, so the entrance to the mine Ekaterina one of the available seats, which are an example of mounting mountain penetrations in the mine. This makes it an interesting monument to the history of mining in Altai.
Peter Kozmich Frolov - son of Cosmas were continued his father's work on the mechanization Zmeinogorsk mine. In 1806 - 1809 GG it was built by the iron rail-road (the first time in Russia), which worked until the late 19th century. "The ores from the mine Zmeinogorsk. Carried in Zmeevski plant-iron road from the mine to the plant at 1 mile 330 yards".
By the 19th century in the trade area is formed Zmeinogorsk, here built mountain house officers. In the early 19th century buildings are mine management, pharmacy, Church of the Transfiguration (Transfiguration Church in Zmeinogorsk destroyed in October in 1938. On 03/06/1995, the priests came to the city and the museum conducted the service. Since June 1996 the church was taken under a special building of the former Children's Library) "ca. site editor".
Quarry (large spacing) of the former mine Zmeinogorsk formed from the excavation was on the Snake (barite open pit mining). In 1986, there is a memorial plaque.
B. Smirnova, director of the Museum
Результаты голосования - 'Есть у Змеиногорска.РУ будущее?'
Всего проголосовало - 474 человек
|да, и хорошее - 278 голосов, ||58.65 %|
|нет, деградация - 162 голосов, ||34.18 %|
|отстань, не до этого - 34 голосов, ||7.17 %|
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